What happens when your partner passes away and you are not provided for in their Will?
The death of a loved one is never easy. There are all manner of things that need to be organised when your significant other dies, such as their funeral, as well as saying goodbye and grieving. The process can become even more complicated when issues regarding their estate and relationship property arise.
It is not widely known that a surviving spouse or partner has a right to make an election either to take their entitlement under the Will or to seek an order for the division of relationship property, if that is more favourable than what they are left under the Will.
A concept of moral duty to adequately provide for certain family members out of your estate also exists. It is also possible to seek provision from an estate if you provided a service whilst the person was alive on the basis they promised to provide for you in their Will, but this has not been recorded in their Will.
Property (Relationships) Act 1976 (“PRA”)
The PRA gives a surviving spouse or partner two options. Option A is to apply for a division of the relationship property, the starting point being an equal division. Option B is to simply take what you are entitled to under the deceased’s Will or if the deceased did not have a valid Will (dying ‘intestate’), to take what you are entitled to under the Administration Act 1969.
In some circumstances, the executors of an Estate can also seek permission from the Court to bring a claim against the surviving spouse/partner for division of property between the spouse/partner and the Estate. This can be complex and is less common.
Why make a choice for division of relationship property rather than taking what you’re entitled to under the Will?
The surviving spouse or partner could be entitled to more under the PRA than they would receive under the Will. Examples include:
- If no provision or inadequate provision is made for the surviving partner in the Will, for example if the family home was owned by the deceased and it has been left to their children from an earlier relationship.
- Where there is no valid Will .
- If there is an outdated Will which provides for a previous partner and not the current partner.
There are specific time limits involved with making an election, so it is important that legal advice is sought promptly. Legal advice will help you make an informed decision within the correct time frame while making the process as simple as possible.
Family Protection Act 1955 (“FPA”)
The FPA allows for a claim to be made by a spouse or partner (and other categories of persons) for provision from a deceased’s estate if proper maintenance and support has not been provided to the surviving spouse or partner. There are a number of circumstances that the Court can take into account when determining whether to grant provision from a deceased’s estate.
Applications can be made by a spouse or partner, children and grandchildren, and even stepchildren or parents if they were being financially supported by the deceased and they feel there should have been provision made for them.
As with a PRA claim, there are specific time limits for bringing an application under the FPA and it is important that legal advice is sought promptly.
Law Reform (Testamentary Promises) Act 1949 (“TPA”)
The TPA provides an avenue to make a claim if someone provided services to the deceased and in return they promised to leave them something under the Will, but in fact no provision was made for them.
Such services can include anything above and beyond the reasonable obligations expected of a loved one. The claimant needs to prove:
- That they rendered services to, or performed work for, the deceased in their lifetime;
- That there was a promise by the deceased to reward the claimant;
- A link between the services and the promise; and
- There was no promised testamentary provision or reward provided in the Will for the claimant.
The promise for compensation can be expressed or implied, in writing or verbal. The Court will consider all facts in the case when making a decision.
When people get caught out
There are a few laws surrounding wills which may surprise you. The unpleasant truth is normally discovered by those who are already grieving.
Administration Act 1969
When a person dies without a Will or their Will is invalid, they are considered intestate. This means that distribution of their estate will occur under the Administration Act 1969. Section 77 of the Administration Act 1969 sets out the patterns of distribution according to who the intestate leaves behind, for example: a spouse or partner, children, and/or parents.
Section 77 of the Administration Act 1969 is noteworthy in that, after the payment to the surviving spouse/partner of a prescribed amount and them receiving the chattels, it distributes the residue of an intestate person’s estate with one third to a spouse or partner and two thirds to any children. Therefore, it is particularly important for those who have children to leave a Will if they wish to provide more than a third of their estate to any current spouse or partner.
Marriage cancels a will, but divorce does not
When a Will exists before marriage, once a person is married, the Will is only valid if the Will states that it was made “in contemplation of the marriage”.
On the contrary, when divorce or separation occurs, a Will is not automatically void. If the marriage or civil union has been legally dissolved, but the Will has not been changed, then the appointment of the spouse as executor and any disposition to the spouse under the Will (with limited exception where a disposition is in favour of children) is void and the Will must be read as if the spouse had died immediately before the Will maker. If you still wish to appoint your ex-spouse or partner as an Executor and/or include them as a beneficiary once your marriage or civil union has been dissolved, then we strongly recommend that you update your Will so that it is clear that your wishes are post-dissolution and still stand.
If no legal dissolution of marriage or civil union has occurred, then the provisions of the Will that relate to the spouse are not automatically void. We strongly encourage that Wills are updated as soon as separation occurs otherwise an estranged spouse or partner may receive more than intended. If a Will is not updated, any children may be left to make a claim to the estate. Whilst separation will be a factor taken into account, it is onerous to leave family to work through this at a time which is already emotional.
In an era where nuclear families are no longer the norm or majority, it is important to receive legal advice on, and to leave, a Will so that you can be in control of how your estate is distributed on your passing. Not only does this provide certainty for your loved ones, but it can resolve familial relationship issues before they arise in what is already a highly emotive time.
The Holland Beckett Family and Estates teams would be happy to assist you, in the first instance in completing a legally valid Will, and also in working through any challenges to a Will that you face on the death of a loved one.
Please do not hesitate to get in contact with us early on so that we can ensure the minimum amount of stress is placed on you throughout such difficult times.